Army Gold Medal e Army Gold Cross (G.M.) – A medalha de ouro da guerra Peninsular foi atribuída aos oficiais que participaram na guerra Peninsular de 1808 e de 1809, bem como na Guerra com os EUA de 1812. Foi a primeira medalha que poderia ser atribuída postumamente. A medalha foi fabricada em dois tamanhos. A medalha maior (duas polegadas no diâmetro) foi dada aos oficiais generais, a medalha menor foi dada normalmente aos oficiais com posto igual ou superior a Tenente-coronel. A medalha de ouro Peninsular foi importante pela sua novidade: era a primeira medalha que usou o sistema de barras (Clasps). As medalhas eram iguais excepto no nome da batalha gravada dentro de uma grinalda circular no reverso do verso da mesma, dependendo assim da primeira acção do seu portador. O período de sua atribuição foi-se estendendo até abranger toda a guerra peninsular, que durou até 1814.
Em consequência deste facto, um pequeno número de oficiais foi acumulando medalhas atribuídas nas diversas batalhas e acções em que participaram, todas iguais à excepção nome da batalha no reverso. Face a esta situação, as regras mudaram em 1813, passando a ser atribuída apenas uma medalha para toda a guerra, na qual devia ser inscrita no reverso a primeira batalha em que o oficial tinha entrado em acção. Para cada batalha subsequente era colocada uma nova barra na fita com o respectivo nome. Mais tarde, no mesmo ano, decidiu-se que a medalha de ouro seria dada para a primeira citação, e que o número das barras estaria limitado a duas.
À quarta acção ou batalha, a medalha e respectivas barras eram substituídas por uma cruz do ouro com os nomes das quatro batalhas (uma em cada braço da cruz). As batalhas e acções seguintes seriam juntas com o sistema de barras colocadas nas fitas. O número total das cruzes atribuídas foi de 163. O maior número de barras atribuídas com a uma cruz foi de nove, que coube ao duque de Wellington.
- Cruz e nove barras, apenas 1, atribuída ao duque de Wellington
- Cruz com sete barras, 2 atribuídas
- Cruz com as seis barras, 3 atribuídas
- Cruz com as cinco barras, 7 atribuídas
- Cruz com as quatro barras, 8 atribuídas
- Cruz com as três barras, 17 atribuídas
- Cruz com as duas barras, 18 atribuídas
- Cruz com a uma barra, 46 atribuídas
 «The Regulations for the award of medals (London Gazette of 11 September, 1810, and of 9 October, 1813) laid down "that one medal shall be borne by each officer recommended for such distinction," and "that for the second and third events, which may be subsequently commemorated in like manner," an officer should bear "a gold clasp attached to the ribbon to which the medal is suspended, and inscribed with the name of the battle or siege to which it relates. If a person became entitled to a fourth award, a gold cross was given" in substitution of the distinctions previously granted, "with the name of one of the four battles engraved on each arm of the cross. Clasps were added on the ribbon of the cross as required. Medals which would have been awarded to officers, had they not been killed in a battle or siege (or had since died), were transmitted to their families. The medals were of gold, those for General officers being 2. 1 inches in diameter, and those for other officers 1. 3 inch, the name of the recipient being engraved on the rim. The cross in design is that known as Maltese, 1. 5 inch wide, with ornamental border: in the centre a lion statant, in relief. The back of the cross is the same as the front. The name of the recipient is engraved on the edges of the arms. The clasps rneasure 2 inches by 6 inch, and, within a border of laurel, is engraved the name of the battle, or siege, for which it was granted. The ribbon —crimson with dark blue borders — is 1. 75 inch wide. During the whole of the Peninsular War — i.e. from 1808 to 1814 — only 619 medals were awarded to officers of the British Army (including those serving in the Portuguese Army) for 18 different battles, actions, sieges, and captures of fortresses. Of this number, 48 (see List A) were conferred upon officers of the R. A. One of the rules governing the award of medals was "that an Officer shall receive a medal only for a particular action, in which the corps to which he belongs has been engaged with musketry." For this reason officers of the cavalry at Busaco did not receive a medal, and in all Wellington's recommendations the rule was most rigidly adhered to. For the capture of Ciudad Rodrigo in January, 1812, the medal was awarded for the storm only, i.e. for the assault and capture. The officers of the besieging and covering forces did not receive it, and none of the Head Quarters' Staff. Two Artillery officers only (Borthwick and Dickson) received it. Writing to Lieut-General Sir Stapleton Cotton, Bart., K. B, on 16 November, 1813, Wellington said that at the battle of Fuentes de Oñoro "there was a very heavy cannonade upon the troops, in which many were lost; but the officers of no corps were returned in the list for medals whose corps had not been engaged with musketry with the enemy. That is the rule, and I cannot depart from it." [Wellington's Dispatches. 1838. Vol. Xl, pp. 294-5. ]
It will thus be seen that to win a medal in the days of the Peninsular War was no easy matter. In 1847 a silver general service medal, with clasps, was authorized (Horse Guards' General Order, dated 1 June, 1847) for conferment "upon every officer, non-commissioned officer and soldier of the army, who was present in any battle or siege," etc., etc., for which gold medals had previously been awarded. The order applied only to men living in 1847, and not to relatives of those who had died. The qualification for the medal was not so stringent as for the original medal, in that the "engaged with musketry" condition was not enforced. Nine Artillery officers, as shown in the footnotes of list A, received it, with clasps for battles, sieges, etc., at which they had been present, but whose "troop" or "brigade" had not been engaged with musketry; or, because their rank did not at that time entitle them to the gold medal. The original medal rolls of claimants of the silver medal have been examined by me at the War Office. They are in bad condition, torn and damaged. They are generally headed: —
"Return of officers now, or lately, serving in the Army whose claims to receive medals under the General Order of 1 June, 1847, have been examined and allowed, showing the regiments in which they formerly served and the battles or sieges referred to in the said order at which they were severally found to have been present."
These returns are signed by at least 4 General Officers, who were, apparently, specially appointed to check and verify claims. The work was most punctiliously carried out, as is seen from the remarks which were inserted when a claim was disallowed.
The following is given as an example. A veterinary-surgeon claimed clasps for Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vittoria, San Sebastián, and Toulouse. The examining board remarked, "No duty could devolve on a veterinary surgeon at a siege, but Vet. Surg. —— served with the army at the periods of actions. Allow actions, disallow sieges." And so Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, and San Sebastián were cut out. In addition to the nine officers, as mentioned in the foot-notes of List A, the silver medal was awarded to 81 officers of the Royal Artillery. One (2nd Captain P. Faddy) received the naval general service medal with clasp for San Sebastián, having been serving in the Fleet. J. H. Leslie, "Medals which were awarded to Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery for Service in the Peninsular War-1808 to 1814», in The Journal of the Royal Artillery, Vol. LI. No. 6. tambem em http://www. napoleonic-literature. com/Book_18/Medals/Medals. htm